Kasshi calendar

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The modern Kasshi calendar is a complex solar calendar in use in the Kasshi Empire and many other cultures historically influenced by the Kasshi. It uses the common Odiran Era for year-numbering. The year is divided into 12 months of irregular length, from a minimum of 17 days to a maximum of 24 days, reflecting the mild eccentricity of Galhaf's orbit.

Basic principles

Each of the 12 months of the calendar represent a 30-degree segment of Galhaf's orbit, and are derived from the solar periods of the traditional lunisolar calendar, at which time they were conceived as representing a 30-degree segment of the Sun's path through the sky. The two are, of course, mathematically equivalent. Due to the fact that Galhaf has a mildly eccentric orbit, its speed around the Sun is not constant. The year begins in Northern-hemisphere spring. The solstices and equinoxes are seen as the midpoints of the seasons, rather than the beginnings. The first day of spring is thus at the point where Galhaf is 45 degrees past winter solstice. Each month is considered to begin on the first day that Galhaf is in the orbital section associated with said month. Due to the fact that each section does not take an integral number of days to traverse, the length of a month in a given year may be one of two values, namely, either rounded down or rounded up. The months are named quite simply, as Early Spring, Mid-Spring, Late Spring, etc. To account for axial precession, the calendar is periodically shifted slightly, 4 times in every 75 years.

Weeks

The Kasshi use a 9-day week and an 18-day double-week. For many purposes, the double-week is preferred to the month, due to the large variation in the lengths of the months. For example, rent and other bills are typically by the double-week. Weeks are referred to alternatingly as "upper week" or "lower week". When necessary, the adjectives "upper" and "lower" are applied to weekday names. The weeks are historically derived from the half-months of the lunisolar calendar, whose months are usually 18 days. The names "upper" and "lower" are derived from this origin as well. Originally, "upper" referred to the first half of a month, and lower to the second half, the names coming from the fact that the upper half was literally above the second half on a calendar.

Each week day is traditionally associated with a color, given with their translated names here:

  1. Opening (Red)
  2. Fasting (Pink)
  3. First Council (Orange)
  4. Second Council (Yellow)
  5. Feasting (Green)
  6. Market (Green-Blue)
  7. Preparation (Blue)
  8. Worship (Light Blue)
  9. Rest (Purple)

Most people get two days off work every week, usually Worship and Rest, as well as the Full Moon (see below)

Months

Further information is available at Mathematics of the Kasshi calendar

Each month can take one of two values, the "typical" value and either a "long" or a "short" value. The typical value effectively amounts to its actual length rounded to the nearest integer, while the "short" or "long" value is the alternate value. For example, Early Spring has a typical length of 21 days and a long length of 22 days, its actual length being approximately 21.17 days, while Mid-Spring has a typical value of 20 days and a short value of 19 days, its true length being 19.79 days. The first day of a month is the first day following the moment when Galhaf enters the orbit-section associated with that month. The total length of a year is usually 245 days, but is 244 days in short years, which occur slightly less often than once every 7 years.

Month
(Classical Kasshian)
Month
(English translation)
Actual length
(Approximate)
Calendar length[1]
Walītra Early Spring 21.1678 21 (22)
Wakunrī Mid-Spring 19.7888 20 (19)
Walenkalel Late Spring 18.6557 19 (18)
Wamūtra Early Summer 17.9974 18 (17)
Wakommū Mid-Summer 17.9166 18 (17)
Wamūnalel Late Summer 18.4243 18 (19)
Watreshtra Early Fall 19.4454 19 (20)
Wakontresh Mid-Fall 20.7889 21 (20)
Watreshnalel Late Fall 22.1200 22 (23)
Wadreftra Early Winter 23.0130 23 (24)
Wakondref Mid Winter 23.1297 23 (24)
Wadrefnalel Late Winter 22.4228 22 (23)

How frequently a month will be in its atypical length depends on how close its actual length is to an integer. For example, Early Summer is very rarely short[2], whereas Early Fall is short in about 45% of years. At present, the typical lengths add up to only 244 days, meaning that a common year must have at least one long year. Currently, there are no years without at least one non-typical-length month, though this is not always the case, and there are times when the total of all typical lengths add up to 245 or 246 days. There are periods when there are years with all-typical lengths (though obviously not when the total adds up to 246 days)

Major holidays

  • Lunar new year Movable day; Late Winter 13 (of previous solar year) - Early Spring 13. Not all years in the solar calendar have a lunar new year, and many years have two, one in Early Spring and one in Late Winter for the next year. The year 965, for example, has no lunar new year, but 964 has lunar new year on Early Spring 9 (for LY 964) and Late Winter 23 (for LY 965)
  • Seasonal Days: The 1st day of Early Spring, Early Summer, Early Fall, and Early Winter
  • Mid-Spring Day (Vernal equinox) Usually Mid-Spring 11, sometimes Mid-Spring 12
  • Empire Day (signing of Treaty of Union) Late Spring 12
  • Mid-Summer Day (Summer solstice) Usually Mid-Summer 10, sometimes Mid-Summer 9
  • Empress' Birthday: Mid-Fall 8
  • Mid-Fall Day (Autumnal equinox) Usually Mid-Fall 11, sometimes Mid-Fall 12
  • Mid-Winter Day (Winter solstice) Usually Mid-Winter 13, sometimes Mid-Winter 12
  • Ruler's Birthday: The date of the local monarch in monarchical member-states. Non-monarchical states and the City-State of Ivets typically use the Lady Mayor of Ivets' birthday

In addition, full moons are treated as semi-holidays in the Empire, taken as days off, like weekends. When a Full Moon falls on Worship, it is generally celebrated on Preparation, and when it calls on Rest, it is generally celebrated on Opening.

Examples

Whole-Year Calender (965)

All 12 months of the year 965 are shown below. Upper and lower weeks are distinguished by the numbers being written on the top or bottom of the squares. Major holidays are marked with a red background and Full Moons by a green background.

Early Spring   Mid-Spring   Late Spring
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
14
 
15
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
19
 
20
 
21
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
19
 
20
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
Early Summer Mid-Summer Late Summer
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
19
 
Early Fall Mid-Fall Late Fall
1
 
2
 
3
 
1
 
2
 
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
13
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
19
 
12
 
13
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
19
 
20
 
 
18
 
19
 
20
 
21
 
22
 
21
Early Winter Mid-Winter Late Winter
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
1
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
13
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
10
 
11
 
12
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
19
 
20
 
21
 
22
 
18
 
19
 
20
 
21
 
22
 
23
13
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
19
 
20
 
21
 
23
 
 
22
 
23

Summary Calendars

To show how the months' lengths vary from year to year, the years 959-969 are shown here, with short months emphasized with blue backgrounds and long months with green backgrounds

Month 959[3] 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967[3] 968 969
Early Spring 21 22 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 21
Mid Spring 20 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 20
Late Spring 18 19 19 19 19 19 18 18 19 19 19
Early Summer 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18
Mid-Summer 18 18 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 18 18
Late Summer 19 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 18 18 18
Early Fall 19 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 20 20 20
Mid-Fall 21 21 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 20
Late Fall 22 22 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23
Early Winter 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23
Mid-Winter 23 23 23 24 23 23 23 23 23 23 23
Late Winter 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 22 22 22

Several characteristics are apparent from this example. First is that some months vary more often than others. Indeed, during this decade, Early Summer and Early Winter are the same in all ten years, while on the other extreme, Early Fall is long in over half the years (in a larger sample, Early Fall would indeed show up long in less than half the years, 959-969 is exceptional). The most common pattern in a year is to have two long months and one short month, but there are exceptions, such as 963 with only 1 long month and the short year 967 with one short and one long month. Years tend to approximately repeat after 8 years, as can be seen with the pairs 960-968 and 961-969, but as the pair 959-967 show, that is only a tendency.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Typical length, with atypical length in parentheses
  2. ^ In fact, it will never again be short, after the next shift in 978, it will become slightly longer than 18 days, meaning that instead of being usually 18 with rare 17-day months, it'll be usually 18 with rare 19-day months
  3. ^ a b Short year