Kasshi Empire (modern)
|Supranational Organizations||International Council of Governments|
The Kasshi Empire is one of the great powers of Galhaf. It is the leading power in the International Council of Governments and includes most of the Kasshi states, as well as several non-Kasshi states.
The Kasshi Empire consists of a number of member-states divided into several categories:
- Founding States: Those who were original signatories to the Treaty of Union
- Full Members (New States): States who joined after the establishment of the Empire.
- Half-members: States who are not formally part of the Empire, but who are so closely associated with the Empire that they have been granted partial representation in the Parliament. Their association is governed by various Association Treaties
- Dependencies: States which are semi-sovereign but in various states of dependency to the Empire, including:
- Protectorates: States under the Empire's military protection but generally retain a large degree of internal autonomy
- Vassals: States which have sworn fealty to the Empire but remain outside the formal organization of the Empire
- Transitional States: States which are in the process of being granted sovereignty, generally former colonies or protectorates
- Colonies: There are no longer any formal colonies. All colonies have since been moved to other categories or granted independence
- Allies: Not actually members of the Empire, but they have non-voting representation in the Senate
The Empire has a federal structure, with constituent states enjoying a fairly high degree of internal autonomy, especially in the early days of the Empire. There was a tendency towards centralization over the late 8th and into the mid-9th centuries, but in recent years, the empire has begun to decentralize once more. Most of the constituent states are monarchies. There are no true republics within the Empire. The Empire is headed by a imperial ruler, an emperor or empress, who rules for life, or until abdication. It is common practice to abdicate at the age of 100. This position is semi-hereditary. By law, it must remain within the House of Tarana, unless the House should die out, in which case the Senate would choose a new ruling house. Typically, succession is from parent to child. The imperial ruler is advised by an elected Council of Advisers. The leader of the Council is the First Adviser, appointed by the imperial ruler with the consent of the rest of the Council. The Council members are elected by the people, with each adviser elected by a different class. For example, the Agriculture Adviser is elected by farmers and the Science Adviser is elected by scientists. Laws require the consent of the imperial ruler and the First Adviser. A relevant Adviser, if supported by 2/3 of the rest of the Council of Advisers, may veto a bill.
There is a three-chamber Parliament consisting of the Senate, the Council of Nobles and the Grand Assembly. The Grand Assembly is elected by the people, with the franchise being restricted to those over the age of 36 earning at least 1,000 chan per year. Most seat are elected by geographical constituencies, but there are a small number of non-territorial sovereign entities, which are groups that are considered "member states" without having specific territories. Individual considered members of those categories vote for those seats. NTSEs include the major faiths, certain ethnic minorities, and some other special interest groups, such as the disabled. There are also territorial-based "NTSEs" for the pteranthropans. The Council of Nobles consists of all individuals with noble titles, with voting, for most purposes, being one vote per title, giving multiple votes to many nobles.
The Senate has a special structure. Senators are chosen for life (or until retirement, though no strict age rule exists, many Senators follow the imperial practice of resignation at 100). Each State has between 1-6 senate seats. The majority of States have 3 seats, except that the founding states and some new states have 6 seats. City-states have 2 seats, except Ivets which has 4. Dependencies and allies have 1 seat. Senators from Allies are non-voting. Senators from half-members and dependencies have half-votes. With the exception of the city-states and the dependencies, the seats are one of three categories, with 1 or 2 Senators in each seat. The three categories are royal seats, legislative seats, and popular seats. The sole difference between these categories is how they are chosen. Royal seats are chosen by the executives of each state (in some states requiring the consent of their parliaments), legislative seats are chosen by the legislatures of the states, and the popular seats are chosen by the people of the states. In the city-states, one seat is filled by the people and the other by mutual agreement of the city-state's executive and parliament. In the dependencies and allies, the single seat is elected according to that state's laws. Historically, a few seats had two or more Senators, but the seat as a whole had only one vote, with that vote being either divided fractionally among its holders or cast by consensus rule. That practice, which was a carryover from the old Empire, was abolished by the Senate Reform Act of 852, which permitted existing split-seats to retain their members, but forbade new members from being appointed to those seats until such time as they were vacant. The last split-seat ended in 887
The Kasshi civilization has had a long history of alternating union and disunion since the days of the First Empire over 4,000 years ago. Historians refer to the various political states by a term which translates literally as Incarnation. The modern Empire, for example, is referred to as the Tarana-Ivets Incarnation after the ruling house and the capital. The modern Empire was formed in the year 721 OE with the ratification of the Unification Treaty on Late Spring 12 at the conclusion of the Kasshi Unification Congress.
The modern Empire dates back to the dissolution of the Old Empire, also known as the Narets-Koven Incarnation after the first and last capitals. The old Empire had gradually become weaker and more decentralized over the course of the 5th through 7th centuries OE. In the mid-7th century, reform movements began to encourage republican forms of government, striking at the heart of the Empire's structure. In the year 643 (coincidentally the same year Dzesa Tsalenekh was born), the monarchy was overthrown in Tabrek, a constituent kingdom within the old Empire. This started a series of revolutions, peaking in the so-called Great Unrest of 647-651 when one after another monarchy was overthrown. A few monarchies, including the Imperial Throne itself, survived the Unrest. The Empire struggled to incorporate the increasingly-large number of republics within a fundamentally monarchically-based state, but without success. In 658, the Imperial Throne was abolished. For a few years, a so-called New Empire existed which attempted to restructure the Empire as a federal entity with an elected head of state replacing the former Emperor. The "New Empire" was replaced with a Kasshi Federation in 663, which itself was dissolved in 668, leaving no unified state. The various constituent entities were left as sovereign states, several of which formed smaller federations. The Kasshi states were especially hard hit by the First Great Depression of 678-695, leading to social revolutions which toppled the last of the remaining monarchies, and several other revolutions. The very last monarchy, Lareth, fell in 692. Also during this time, in 685, Dzesa published her Brief History of the Kasshi Peoples and its sequel A Concise History of Human Civilizations, which laid out her doctrine of popular monarchism, a sub-branch of neomonarchism which incorporated limited democratic elements into a monarchical state. She argued that monarchy, tempered with popular representation, was the most stable form of government and the one that brought the greatest good to the greatest number of people.
In support of her beliefs, the first Yatta Party was founded in Dzesa's home state of Lareth. Other Yata parties were founded in one after another Kasshi state, and some non-Kasshi states with significant Kasshi influence. They remained relatively small groups until the Second Great Depression of 705-718. Their first great success was in Lareth, in 708, when the monarchy was restored. Several other states restored their monarchies as well. The Realm of Ivets restored its monarchy in 715, having become a republic in 650. Tarana Maretska, the granddaughter of the last King, was enthroned.
In 718, the Kasshi Unification Congress was held to negotiate the formation of a new Empire. For three years, the details of the proposed Empire were debated, finally resulting in the creation of the Unification Treaty. Early in the debates, it was agreed that the capital would be Ivets and that the ruling house of the Realm of Ivets would be the new Imperial House, thus, that Tarana would be the first Empress.
Tarana, however, never sat on the Imperial Throne, dying in an accident shortly before the Treaty was ratified. Her daughter, Chara Taranakh, thus became the first Empress of the modern Empire with Dzesa as her First Adviser